Law of proximity

Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt:
Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt: Visualize a cluster of circles, of varying colors, grouped tightly together. Nearby, but distinctly apart, is a second cluster of similarly varied circles. The distinction between the two groups represents the Law of Proximity

In the world of psychology and visual perception, the Law of Proximity stands as a fundamental concept. It states that objects that are close to each other tend to be perceived as a group. This principle is part of the Gestalt Laws of Grouping, a set of principles that describe how our mind organizes visual information. The Law of Proximity, along with other Gestalt principles, has profound implications not only in the way we understand the world around us but also in how we design and interact with digital products.

The Law of Proximity in Detail

To illustrate the Law of Proximity, let's consider an example. Imagine you're looking at a screen displaying a grid of dots. If some of the dots are closer together, your eye and mind will naturally group them together. You'll perceive them as a separate entity from the other dots, even if all the dots are identical in shape and size. This automatic grouping is the Law of Proximity in action.

Examples of the Law of Proximity in Digital Product Design

Navigation Menus

The most common example of the Law of Proximity in digital product design is perhaps the navigation menu. In most websites or applications, the navigation menu is a group of options or links placed close together, usually at the top or side of the screen. This close placement allows users to perceive these links as one group separate from the other elements on the page.

Form Design

Another example can be found in form design. When filling out a form on a website or app, fields related to the same topic are often grouped together. For instance, you might see your shipping address fields grouped separately from your payment information. This helps users understand which fields are related and need to be filled out together.

Card Design

Card design, commonly used in websites and apps, is another great example. Information is grouped within each card, allowing users to perceive each card as one cohesive unit. This makes it easier for users to process information, particularly when browsing through large amounts of data.

Connecting the Law of Proximity to Digital Software Products

The Law of Proximity is a powerful tool for creating intuitive and user-friendly digital software products. By understanding how users naturally group and separate information based on proximity, designers can craft interfaces that align with users' expectations and cognitive processes.

For instance, in a project management app, tasks related to the same project could be grouped together, making it easier for users to understand the relationship between tasks. In a social media app, posts from the same user or topic could be grouped, helping users navigate the app more effectively.

In summary, understanding and applying the Law of Proximity allows designers to create digital products that are not only visually appealing but also intuitive and user-friendly. It is a fundamental principle that bridges the gap between human cognition and digital design, leading to digital products that resonate with user expectations and natural cognitive processes.


The principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects, a principle known as Prägnanz. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are organized into five categories: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Connectedness.