Miller’s Law

Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt:
Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt: A figure, surrounded by a series of floating orbs each containing different icons representing various pieces of information, struggling to juggle more than seven orbs at a time.

In the vast universe of cognitive psychology, there exists a law that defines the boundaries of our working memory. Named after George Miller, the cognitive psychologist who first proposed it in 1956, Miller's Law states that the average person can only keep around seven items (plus or minus two) in their working memory1. This law has significant implications not only for our understanding of human cognition but also for the design and development of digital software products.

Understanding Miller's Law

Miller's Law is all about the capacity of our working memory, which can be thought of as the mind's scratch pad. It's where we temporarily hold and manipulate information. According to Miller, this capacity is limited to about seven chunks of information. A 'chunk' can be anything that we perceive as a single unit, whether it's a single letter, a word, or an entire phrase.

User Interface Design

Consider the design of menus in software applications. Have you ever wondered why most dropdown menus contain around seven items? This is not a coincidence, but a design choice heavily influenced by Miller's Law. Designers know that overwhelming users with too many options at once can lead to cognitive overload, making it more difficult for users to make decisions and interact with the software.

Information Presentation

Think about when you're reading an article or a report on a software product. If the text is broken down into bullet points or numbered lists, there are often around seven items per list. This is another practical application of Miller's Law. Breaking down information into manageable chunks makes it easier for users to digest and remember the information.

Task Management

In project management and task allocation within software development teams, Miller's Law can be a guiding principle. By limiting the number of tasks assigned to each team member at any one time to around seven, managers can help ensure that team members can effectively keep track of and manage their workload.

Miller's Law and Software Development

In the realm of digital software products, understanding and applying Miller's Law can greatly enhance the user experience. By structuring information and tasks in a way that aligns with the natural limits of our working memory, we can create software that is more intuitive and user-friendly.

At the same time, it's important to remember that Miller's Law is a general guideline rather than a strict rule. The exact number of items a person can hold in their working memory can vary depending on the individual and the situation. Still, as a rule of thumb, Miller's Law provides a valuable framework for designing and developing digital software products that align with the cognitive capabilities of their users.


In conclusion, Miller's Law is a powerful tool in the arsenal of software developers and designers. By understanding the limits of working memory, we can create digital products that are not just functional and visually appealing, but also cognitively accessible and user-friendly.