The Dependency Inversion Principle

Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt:
Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt: A high-level module, depicted as a floating island, is connected to various abstract components. Each abstract component is represented by a cloud, showing byte data and metadata. The island does not interact with the lower-level details, depicted as a complex city below the clouds

High-level modules should not be dependent on low-level implementations.

The Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP) is one of the five pillars of the SOLID principles of object-oriented programming. It posits that high-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Instead, both should depend on abstractions. In practical terms, it means that the nitty-gritty details of a system should not influence or dictate the design of the higher-level modules.

An example of DIP in action is a program that reads metadata from a website. The main component, under the DIP, would depend only on an abstract component which can fetch byte data, and then another abstract component which would be able to read metadata from a byte stream. The main component wouldn't need to know about TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML, etc.

This principle is vital in software development for several reasons:


By decoupling high-level modules from low-level implementations, it becomes easier to change or swap out components without affecting the rest of the system. This is particularly useful when you need to introduce new features or refactor your codebase.


Understanding and managing a system becomes more straightforward when high-level modules are isolated from the complexities of low-level implementations. You only need to understand the interface, not the implementation details.


Abstracting lower-level dependencies makes unit testing more efficient because it allows for the use of mocks or stubs.

Three examples of DIP in the creation of digital software products.

Database Access

In a system where high-level modules interact directly with the database, any change to the database schema can potentially break the system. However, when we apply DIP, we create an abstract layer (like a Data Access Object or Repository) between the high-level modules and the database. This way, if the database schema changes, only the data access layer needs to be adjusted.

External Services

When a high-level module interacts directly with an external service (like a payment gateway), changing that service can be challenging. By applying DIP, we can create an abstract interface to interact with the service, allowing us to switch to a different provider with minimal impact on our codebase.

UI/UX Design

In frontend development, business logic can get tangled with the UI code, making it hard to change the user interface without affecting the business logic. By applying DIP, we can separate the UI code from the business logic, making it easier to redesign the UI without risking the business logic.


In conclusion, Dependency Inversion Principle is not just a theoretical concept, but a powerful tool for creating robust, flexible, and maintainable software products. It might seem counterintuitive to 'invert' dependencies at first, but once mastered, it significantly improves the quality and manageability of a digital software product1.

See also