The two Pizza Rule

Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt:
Image created with Midjourney. Image prompt: Visualize a minimalistic, 2D illustration of a small, dynamic team working energetically around a table, with two pizzas at the center. The team members are linked by thin, vibrant lines, reflecting the strong, efficient communication and coordination within the team. In the background, subtly faded, are larger teams tangled in a complex web of lines, representing the inefficiency of larger groups

If you can't feed a team with two pizzas, it's too large.

Jeff Bezos

In the world of digital software creation, efficiency is the name of the game. From streamlined code to user-friendly interfaces, developers are constantly in pursuit of ways to optimize their processes. One principle that has gained traction in the tech industry is the "Two-Pizza Rule". Originating from Amazon's founder, Jeff Bezos, this rule suggests that regardless of the company's size, teams should be small enough to be fed by two pizzas.

The premise of this rule is based on the belief that as a team's size increases linearly, the number of links between people—representing coordination and communication—increases quadratically. This exponential growth can lead to significant overhead costs and inefficiencies. Therefore, the Two-Pizza Rule posits that smaller teams are more effective and efficient.

Real-World Application of the Two-Pizza Rule


The Two-Pizza Rule isn't just a theoretical concept—it's a practice that has been employed by one of the world's most successful tech companies. Amazon has famously implemented this rule, breaking their workforce into smaller, more autonomous groups. This approach allows for faster decision-making, reduces bureaucratic delays, and fosters a more intimate team dynamic that can enhance productivity and innovation.


The music streaming giant, Spotify, also implements a similar philosophy. They organize their workforce into small, autonomous groups called "squads". Each squad is responsible for a specific aspect of the product, and they're empowered to make decisions and implement changes without excessive bureaucracy. This approach has contributed to Spotify's ability to innovate rapidly and consistently deliver user-focused features.


Google, another tech giant, embraces a similar principle but refers to their small teams as "project teams". These groups are designed to foster innovation, creativity, and efficiency. With fewer people, these teams can move more quickly, pivot as needed, and cut through unnecessary red tape.

The Two-Pizza Rule in Digital Software Creation

When developing digital software, the Two-Pizza Rule can be particularly valuable.

Here's how:

Efficient Communication

Smaller teams allow for more effective communication. With fewer links between people, there's less chance for miscommunication or important information getting lost in the shuffle. This facilitates quicker problem-solving and decision-making.The number of links between people can be expressed as 


where n = number of people.


Rapid Prototyping

Small teams can move faster. This speed allows them to iterate quickly, conduct more efficient testing, and bring products to market faster.

Increased Ownership

With fewer people on a team, each member has a more significant role in the project. This can lead to increased motivation, higher levels of engagement, and a stronger sense of ownership, all of which can contribute to the creation of superior software products.


In conclusion, while the number of pizzas a team consumes might seem like a trivial metric, the philosophy behind the Two-Pizza Rule can provide significant benefits. By encouraging smaller, more autonomous teams, companies can boost efficiency, increase motivation, and ultimately create better digital software products.